Meaning & purpose
Citation is the preferred form for citing a dataset or collection to enable data to be referenced in the same way as researchers routinely provide a bibliographic reference to publications. Use of this element enables datasets to be cited independently of any associated publications. Citation of datasets promotes recognition of their value as research outputs in their own right and facilitates reuse.
Citation metadata can be recorded as a single text string or split into its components that can be more readily machine-read (preferred). The CitationInfo element is a wrapper for the child elements:
- CitationMetadata: component elements that describe a citation; or
- FullCitation: a single text string that describes a citation
The child elements listed below are contained within the CitationMetadata wrapper element. The format and obligations of the elements ensure the CitationMetadata element is flexible and extensible enough to cater for citation requirements across disciplines, and is closely aligned with other standards including the DataCite Metadata Schema:
- an Identifier, and its Type (see the list of Citation Information Identifier Types below). The Identifier element and its Type are mandatory.
- a Contributor(s) for the main researchers involved in producing the data, or the authors of the publication, in priority order. A Contributor is mandatory. Optionally, Contributor names may be expressed using the NamePart child element.
- a Title for the name of the dataset or collection. A Title is mandatory.
- the Version of the dataset or collection. Version is optional.
- a Publisher of the dataset or collection (the name of the entity that holds, archives, published, prints, distributes, releases, issues or produces the resource). As this property is used to formulate the citation, consider the prominence of the role. In the case of datasets, "publish" is understood to mean making the data available to the community of researchers. A Publisher is mandatory.
- the PlacePublished (location name) for the dataset or collection. A PlacePublished is optional.
- a Date associated with the publication of the dataset or collection. A Date is mandatory.
- the Url of the dataset or collection being described. A URL is only required if the Identifier does not resolve or provide access to the data.
- the Context (e.g. series title, database name) of the resource being cited. Context is optional.
Citation Information attributes
Citation Identifier Type
If CitationMetadata is used, an Identifier and its Type are required. Preferably specify a type from the Identifier Type vocabulary. Local types may also be used.
Citation Date Type
If CitationMetadata is used, a Date and its Type are required. Preferably specify a type from the Citation Date Type vocabulary. Local types may also be used.
the date when the data was or will be made publicly available
the date the resource is made publicly available. May be a range, or indicate the end of an embargo period
the date the resource itself was put together; this could be a date range or a single date for a final component, e.g. the finalised file with all of the data
any relevant date not otherwise specified
the date that the publisher accepted the resource into their system
the date the creator submits the resource to the publisher. This could be different from dateAccepted if the publisher then applies a selection process
use when publicationDate is a range
the date that the resource is published or distributed e.g. to a data centre
the date of the last update to the resource, when the resource is being added to. (Equivalent to Datacite 'Updated')
use when publicationDate is a range
the date or date range during which the dataset or resources are accurate
Citation Contributor Sequence attribute
If more than one contributor is recorded in CitationMetadata, the Sequence attribute can optionally be used to specify the order in which contributors should appear in a formatted citation. Use cardinal numbers to denote the sequence.
Citation Style attribute
If a citation is provided as a block of text within the FullCitation element, optionally the Style attribute can be specified, preferably from the Citation Style vocabulary. Local terms may also be used.
American Psychological Association
Modern Language Association of America
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Council of Science Editors
Chicago Manual of Style
American Medical Association
Australian Style Manual
Australian Guide to Legal Citation
American Chemical Society
International Data Citation
Where CitationInfo has been provided, the citation will display in Research Data Australia when the 'Cite' button is clicked:
- Citations provided in CitationMetadata will display in the DataCite format (see p.11).
- Citations provided in FullCitation will display in the style provided e.g. APA, Vancouver.
The citation can be exported to referencing software such as EndNote or EndNote Web.
Citation identifiers are displayed within Research Data Australia as provided by the data provider, as clickable links (when possible), and prefixed with the identifier type.
If CitationMetadata is used, then parties are ordered in the citation in the order defined in the metadata, otherwise the parties are listed in no particular order in the citation.
Providing a citation for collections in Research Data Australia is recommended. Citations support the reuse of, and long-term access to, collections.
- Use CitationMetadata in preference to FullCitation as it facilitates reuse of citation information by third parties, e.g.
- Contributors included in the citation should be linked to the collection record containing the citation in either of two ways:
- Preferably specify a Citation Style if FullCitation is used.
- The Identifier element is required to facilitate conformity with citation schemas such as DataCite which includes the identifier as a mandatory element. Preferably provide a globally unique, persistent and resolvable identifier for the collection (preferably a DOI) in the CitationMetadata Identifier element. (If a resolvable identifier is provided in the Identifier element of the collection record, then use this in the CitationMetadata Identifier element).
- The URL element (to access the data) is required only where the CitationMetadata Identifier element is not resolvable or does not provide access to the data (URLs are not explicitly provided for in the DataCite schema, since DOIs are assumed to be resolvable). If the Identifier element already contains a URL, then this should not be repeated in the URL element.
XML encoding examples
For the reference: Irino, T; Tada, R (2009): Chemical and mineral compositions of sediments from ODP Site 127-797. V. 2.1. Geological Institute, University of Tokyo. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.726855.
|26 Oct 2010||First publication|
|24 Jan 2011||Corrected RIF-CS examples to reflect required sequence of elements; added link to Datacite examples page|
|13 July 2011||Additional information about exporting citation information|
|21 July 2011||Removed link to now-deleted DataCite examples page|
|21 Nov 2011||Added information about new publisher element introduced with RIF-CS v1.3.0, amended examples to include publisher, added definitions for date vocabulary|
|29 Nov 2011||Added link to information about URL displays for identifiers|
|30 Nov 2011|
Corrected date type in second RIF-CS example (was "year", now "date")
|10 Oct 2012||Removed "initial" name parts from xml examples|
|19 Nov 2012||Updated to reflect changes endorsed by RAB to align this element with the DataCite schema|
|12 Dec 2013||Added information to the Best Practice and Use in Research Data Australia sections.|
|15 July 2014||Added information about exporting Research Data Australia records to EndNote.|
|06 Sep 2018||Added information about ordering of parties in the citation pop-out in Research Data Australia.|
|1 Mar 2019||Updated Full Citation XML example to reflect current DataCite schema requirements (v4.1). Updated link to DataCite citation format.|
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